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Clinical Cases in mineral and bone metabolism

Densitometric evaluation of bone-prosthetic counterface in hip and knee arthroplasty with modern implants

Original Article, 144 - 150
doi: 10.11138/ccmbm/2016.13.2.144
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Abstract
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Introduction. Recent acquisitions of the complex mechanisms of osseointegration between implants and host bone have gained attention, accordingly to the methods of evaluation of these interactions. DEXA analysis is considered an useful tool to assess such phenomena, in order to analyse in a quantitative manner the local metabolic activity of the bone, and to evaluate over the time the integration between host bone and prosthetic components. The purpose of the present study is to report about a preliminary experience in the analysis of osseointegration processes of patients undergoing a primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) or a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (rTKA).
Materials and methods. Thirty patients undergoing THA and nineteen undergoing rTKA were included in this study. In fifteen cases of THA a standard cementless stem was used; in the other fifteen a short cementless stem was chosen. In all cases a cementless cup was implanted. In all patients undergoing rTKA, all implants had pressfit femoral and tibial diaphyseal stems; only the femoral component and the tibial plateau were cemented. DEXA evaluation was performed preoperatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively for rTKA, and at 6 and 12 months for THA.
Results. DEXA in THA showed a significant decrease at the femoral ROIs 1 and 7, and an increase in ROI 4. In rTKA a reduction of femoral BMD in R1, R7, and R4 was found, with maximum values of -13.6% in R1 and -11.89% in R7 at 24 months and a value of -2.55% in R4 at 12 months. On the tibial side, an increase in BMD R4 (with values of 2.18% still at 24 months), and a reduction in R7 (progressively lesser over the time) and in R1 (progressively higher) were found.
Conclusions. After a joint replacement a full adhesion of the prosthetic surface to the host bone should be achieved through a local biological process named osseointegration.
In some cases this process may not fully realize, so the secondary stability of the implant may fail. DXA is a valuable tool to follow over time the bone remodelling at the bone-prosthesis counterface in THA and in rTKA, in order to early detect any alterations of such phenomenon.

Vol. XIII (No. 2) 2016 May-August

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