Pharmacological therapy of knee osteoarthritis - an update
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The knee is the largest synovial fluid joint and the most frequent site for osteoarthritis. Knee Osteoarthritis (KO) is a progressive, multifactorial and degenerative condition involving cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial membrane. The role of inflammation is not completely clarified; then, if the inflammation triggers the osteoarthritic changes or, conversely, if the inflammation is a consequence of the osteoarthritic changes continues to be a matter of debate. The main aim of the management of KO is to control pain and to improve articular function and quality of life. Traditional and current pharmacological treatment rely on analgesics, oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), chondroprotective agents, intra-articular corticosteroids (CS) and viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA). New therapeutics are based on recent progress in understanding KO pathogenesis, including changes in subchondral bone, advanced drug delivery systems and novel platform biotechnology generating sophisticated molecules. Supplements can be considered in the treatment strategy of the disease.
KEY WORDS: knee osteoarthritis; bisphosphonates; orthosilic acid; update.